45 The migrants arrived in Pittsburgh, one of the great industrial centers of the North.
Panel 45 highlights the food culture of African American migrants to the North. It shows a family sharing a meal aboard a train heading north to Pittsburgh. Southern blacks who were accustomed to Jim Crow policies had acquired the habit of packing food in baskets and shoeboxes for train trips in order to avoid poor treatment at segregated eating establishments. These boxed meals were culinary events, often including not just sandwiches but also Southern delicacies such as fried chicken, biscuits and cornbread, okra, deviled eggs, potato salad, and cake.  Not only did these meals serve a practical purpose—sustenance for the long journey—they also provided those leaving their homes with memories of food and family traditions they could bring with them.Not surprisingly, with the mass migration of African Americans to the North came the influence of Southern and Creole cuisine to Northern metropolitan areas. The preparation of certain staples such as cornbread and the practice of using cheaper cuts of meat (especially pork for economic reasons) canned and dried goods, and deep frying cooking techniques continued.  Migrants from the South and the Caribbean opened up restaurants in their new neighborhoods for the growing population of other immigrants, serving up comfort food that had migrated along with the people.  Black cooks also became aware of a variety of other cuisines as they acclimated to Northern culture. Many domestic cooks who came from the South learned Jewish, Italian, Latin American, European, and other styles of cooking, working in restaurants or private family kitchens and adapting their culinary knowledge to include new spices, pasta and grains, and produce. 
 Frederick Douglass Opie, Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 56–57.
 Frederick Douglass Opie, Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 57.
 William Frank Mitchell, African American Food Culture (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2009), 27.
 Frederick Douglass Opie, Hog and Hominy: Soul Food from Africa to America (New York, Columbia University Press, 2008), 62.